UK shops reopening provides relief for retailers, although insolvency worries loom

The re-opening of shops has provided much-needed relief for retailers in the past two weeks, although a large number are thought to be in financial distress as Covid-19 has caused shopper numbers to slump.

Footfall was down by more than 50 per cent year-on-year in the last week of June, said the British Retail Consortium (BRC). Neverthless, this was some improvement on a dire May, when footfall was down 82 per cent.

Shops reopened on 15 June in England after a three-month lockdown to help slow the spread of the coronavirus.

“Consumers have benefited as shop prices have fallen for the 13th consecutive month. However the situation for many retailers, such as those in clothing and footwear, remains very challenging. Sales have dropped significantly since mid-March and two thirds of businesses are reporting turnover below pre-crisis levels, meaning there is a serious risk to jobs as a result,” said Helen Dickinson, chief executive at the BRC.

Insolvency risk

Separately, it is feared 35 per cent of businesses in the UK are at risk of insolvency – with retail and hospitality firms the most at risk.

In a poll by consultancy The Centre for Economics and Business Research, 17 per cent of firms said there was a moderate to high risk of going insolvent, with a further 18 per cent reporting to be in some financial distress.

However, economists said it was encouraging that 65 per cent of respondents felt there was no risk of collapse.

Hospitality businesses should also feel some relief this weekend when pubs, bars, restaurants and hotels are allowed to re-open. According to the RAC, around 10 million drivers will take to the roads this weekend to celebrate the easing of lockdown on 4 July.

James Endersby, chief executive at data firm Opinium, said: “A light at the end of the tunnel does appear to be surfacing for some businesses across the country – with current trading conditions and future prospects both improving.”

The hospitality and tourism industry employs around 1.6 million people across 127,000 businesses, according to the British Hospitality Association. The retail sector employs some 2.9 million people across 208,000 firms.

Economic contraction worst in 41 years

Official figures showed on Tuesday the UK economy contracted an annualised 2.2 per cent in the first three months of the year.

The Office for National Statistics said it was the joint largest fall since 1979, and this barely covered the coronavirus crisis as lockdown was brought in towards the end of March.

Recent ONS figures showed the economy plummeted by 20.4 per cent in April – the largest drop in a single month since records began.

Source: inews


UK mall operator Intu collapses into insolvency. Thousands of jobs are at risk

Britain is already facing its steepest recession in 300 years, and expected to suffer the worst coronavirus-induced slump of any major economy this year. It's also risking a rupture with its single biggest trading partner, the European Union, if a new trade deal is not agreed soon.

Tens of thousands of jobs have already gone in energy, banking, aviation and aerospace and now many more are at risk after Intu (INTU), one of the United Kingdom's largest shopping mall owners, said Friday that it is entering administration. The company has debts of £4.5 billion ($5.6 billion) and was unable to agree repayment holidays with its creditors. Its shares, which have been on a downward trajectory for several years, plunged 54% on Friday before they were suspended.

Intu owns 17 UK shopping centers and two in Spain, accommodating 800 brands and 400 million shopper visits a year, according to the company. These centers will remain open during the insolvency process and individual retailers will have to enter transitional agreements with the administrators, KPMG.

But UK retailers are themselves suffering from a collapse in sales and many have been unable to pay rent for the upcoming quarter, raising questions as to how many of the shopping centers can realistically afford to remain open.

Just 14% of the rent owed by UK retailers for the third quarter of this year was paid on June 24, the due date, according to property management platform Re-Leased.

"We expect there will be more pressure to come," Re-Leased CEO Tom Wallace said in a statement Friday. "The temporary ban on evictions for non-payment of rent and the government furlough scheme is providing a lifeline to many tenants at the moment, but those measures will not last forever," he added.

Intu said it received just 29% of second quarter rent from tenants, down from 77% for the same period last year. Intu, which employs 2,600 people, was in a tight spot going into the pandemic. It posted a £2 billion ($2.5 billion) loss last year.

News of its collapse into insolvency will come as a particularly bitter blow to retailers because it coincides with a loosening of lockdown restrictions in the United Kingdom that has allowed stores to welcome customers again for the first time in months.

Brands such as Zara and H&M (HNNMY), which have already suffered steep sales declines this year, have outlets in malls owned by Intu. H&M said Friday that worldwide sales fell 50% from March through May, while Zara owner Inditex, the world's biggest clothing retailer, reported a 44% drop in sales for the three months to March. Both brands plan to accelerate store closures and a shift to online retailing — one of the few bright spots in the pandemic.

Only grocery stores and online retailers have dodged the slump in UK retail sales over the past few months, with the pandemic accelerating a move to e-commerce that was already hurting physical stores. Both the volume and value of retail sales suffered record declines over the three months to May, falling by 14% and 13%, respectively, when compared with the previous three months, according to the Office for National Statistics.The proportion spent online soared to the highest on record in May at 33.4%, breaking April's 31% record, according to ONS.In the United States, several major chains, such as JCPenney and Neiman Marcus, have already filed for bankruptcy and as many as 25,000 physical stores are expected to permanently close this year, driven partly by the continued shift to online shopping, according to Coresight Research. More than half of the store closures are expected to come in malls.

Source : CNN Business


IAG airline Level Europe files for insolvency

Austrian short-haul budget carrier Level Europe plans to file for insolvency, it said on Thursday, becoming the latest airline casualty of the coronavirus crisis despite the financial might of parent IAG <ICAG.L>.

The small airline, previously known as ANISEC, began operating in 2018. It has six Airbus short-haul jets and is part of IAG-owned Vueling Group.

British Airways owner IAG also operates a long-haul airline called Level, which is separate from Level Europe, an IAG spokeswoman said.

Level Europe blamed the COVID-19 pandemic for its move to cease trading, joining a growing list of airline failures after planes across the world were grounded for months during coronavirus lockdowns.

Anglo-Spanish group IAG, which also owns Iberia and Aer Lingus, said in April that it had 10 billion euros (£9 billion) of liquidity, but Chief Executive Willie Walsh has said it is burning through cash as the crisis continues and has warned that British Airways is "fighting for survival".

British Airways has said it needs to axe 12,000 jobs.

While IAG's airlines have used furlough schemes and accessed government-backed loans, they are not in line for government bailouts like European rivals such as Air France-KLM and Lufthansa.

An administrator will be appointed once insolvency proceedings have been filed, Level Europe said in its statement.

Source: Yahoo Finance


Insolvency law shake-up will hurt UK pensioners

Sector says that emergency measures hand too much power to banks
The UK pensions industry has warned that emergency measures aimed at helping struggling businesses during the coronavirus pandemic could leave millions of pensioners worse off. In recent weeks the Pensions Regulator, the Pension Protection Fund and trade bodies representing retirement schemes have raised concerns with the government that the Corporate and Governance Insolvency Bill could have serious unintended consequences for retirement plans and their members.

The legislation, which is being fast-tracked through parliament, aims to ease the burden on businesses hit by the Covid-19 crisis by giving them breathing space of up to 40 days to pursue a rescue plan. During this period they are shielded from legal action and paying debts, including those pursued by the Pensions Regulator for unpaid contributions.

However the pension industry fears that, in its current form, the bill hands too much power to creditors like banks at the expense of pensioners, in the event that a company goes bust with a big pension deficit. “This new moratorium will make recovering unpaid pension contributions even more difficult than the current situation,” said the Pensions and Lifetime Savings Association, the trade body which represents more than 1,300 workplace pension schemes.

“By the time action can be taken, it may be too late for a DB scheme or the PPF to recover anything.” The PPF is a statutory lifeboat scheme that is intended to protect members if an employer sponsoring a defined benefits pension plan becomes insolvent. With the new legislation, a concern for the pension industry is that the proposed moratorium risks blowing out an existing pension funding hole, with trustees in a weaker position to recover unpaid contributions.

Currently, if a business goes bust with an underfunded defined benefit pension plan, the scheme has a right to seek funds from the insolvent company with the pension debt ranking alongside other unsecured creditors such as bank loans. But the draft bill would “dramatically alter” this by giving lending debts that fell due during the moratorium period “super priority”, according to the Society of Pension Professionals, a trade body — effectively pushing pension schemes further down the creditor queue.

“The result is that on a restructuring or insolvency, other unsecured creditors, including defined benefit pension schemes, may suffer materially worse recoveries,” the SPP said in a letter sent to the government this week. “This outcome will inevitably lead to more pensioners not receiving their benefits in full and greater strain on the Pension Protection Fund.”

The trade body said the new measures raised the “serious risk of systemic dumping” of DB pension schemes by financially distressed companies because the proposals weakened the influence of both trustees and the PPF during restructuring talks. “Currently, trustees and the PPF are able to get a seat at the table during restructuring talks, but it is more difficult for them to do so under the new rules,” said Tiffany Tsang, senior policy lead on DB schemes at the PLSA.

Since 2005, the PPF has recovered more than £3bn from failed businesses. This cash has been used to help fund compensation payments to hundreds of thousands of members transferred to the pensions lifeboat, which is mostly funded by a levy on solvent schemes. A PPF spokesperson said: “We’re working closely with [the] government to address the concerns that have been raised about specific provisions in the bill, and to make sure pension schemes and the PPF aren’t disadvantaged.“

A spokesperson for the Pensions Regulator said: “We can confirm we are working closely with the government and the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and we are very mindful of the concerns the industry have expressed around the Corporate Insolvency and Governance Bill.” The government said: “This legislation, widely supported by business groups, will help companies through the Covid-19 emergency by giving firms essential breathing space to seek a rescue – ultimately, preserving jobs and livelihoods. “We are working to ensure that pension schemes are not disadvantaged by these important measures.”

Source: Financial Times


UK insolvency law poses hefty losses for government-backed loans

The UK government could face hefty losses on loans made to struggling businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic due to its new insolvency law that can force lenders to accept unfavourable terms during a debt restructuring process.

The new ‘Restructuring Plan', part of the government's Corporate Insolvency & Governance Bill being debated in parliament this week, empowers one class of creditors to force a debt restructuring plan on another class of creditors, in what is known as a cross class cramdown.

It therefore gives a majority of creditors the power to force a debt restructuring onto a single class of creditors who do not agree with it.

This could result in the government having to accept debt write offs on Coronavirus Business Interruption Loans (CBILs) and Coronavirus Large Business Interruption Loans (CLBILs), which are 80% guaranteed by the government.

“We expect to see restructurings in the second half of the year that include these (government guaranteed) bank loans,” said one restructuring lawyer. “Under the new laws you can now cram down a single class -- it would be ironic if this class was these loans.”

The new law requires 75% of lenders, based on value across all the classes, to approve a debt restructuring. This is a far lower hurdle to overcome than the current UK scheme of arrangement system, which requires 75% by value and 50% of creditors in each class to approve the plan before it goes to court. The new law has the ability to cram down a dissenting class unlike the old system.

SUSCEPTIBLE

Some £8.9bn of CBILs were approved by the end of May, providing small and medium-sized businesses with loans of up to £5m each. The vast majority of the loans are unsecured and sit lower down the capital structure, making them susceptible to the will of higher-ranking lenders.

“There is no carve-out in the bill for CBIL loans, and so yes, they could be written down as part of a restructuring. The bank that provided the CBIL loan would be able to rely on the government for a shortfall of up to 80% of the loan,” a second lawyer said.

The loans could be written off completely or they could end up as part of a debt for equity plan, with the government left holding equity stakes in businesses.

“I think a lot of CBILs will be converted into equity – the government could end up the largest minority equity holder in the UK,” a second lawyer said.

 SLOW TAKE-UP

CLBILs, which provide larger corporates with loans of up to £200m, will mainly be secured. As they will rank on an equal basis to existing senior secured lenders, the debt is less likely to be crammed down.

However, the situation is complicated by the fact that existing senior secured lenders have to agree to a dilution of their security when a company takes a CLBIL. Restructuring advisers believe this is why the take up of these loans has been so low, with only 154 agreed so far.

It could also create a more complicated restructuring process where senior secured lenders become pitted against each other.

“Normally secured lenders would form one class in a restructuring, but there is scope for gerrymandering where some secured lenders form a different class and try to override another,” a third restructuring lawyer said.

Under the new bill, there are some safe guards against this as a court has to be satisfied that none of the dissenting classes would be any worse off under the plan than they would be in the event of an alternative process such as a liquidation.

However, the final approval of the plan lies with the judge.

 “It is a bit of a blunt instrument as it is. It will come down to how competent a judge is in understanding what is fair and what the motivations are of the different classes of creditors,” a fourth restructuring lawyer said.

Source: Yahoo Finance

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Record number of retail insolvencies in first quarter of 2019

Fears over the continuing crisis of high street stores in Scotland is evident after the retail sector experienced a record number of failures in the first quarter of the year.

New research from the Insolvency Service found 28 Scottish retailers filed for insolvency in the first three months of 2019. Having collated data since 2007, this is the highest figure recorded, with the third quarter of 2012 previously being the worst number of retailers going bust at 27.

While shop owners are facing the soaring costs in business rates, wages and utilities, customers are being drawn away from adding to retailers’ footfall and towards the endless shopping services now available online.

A survey by Local Data Company (LD) revealed 265 stores were closed in 2018 across eight Scottish towns and cities: Aberdeen, Ayr, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Falkirk, Paisley and Perth. With only 146 stores opening in the same period, this was a net change of minus 119 on the high street.

With high street retailers struggling to compete with online shopping, several retailers are turning to company voluntary arrangements (CVAs) to scale back their physical presence and minimise rent bills.

At the end of April, the UK’s biggest department store chain Debenhams announced its plans to close 22 stores – one of which is located in Scotland – putting 1,200 jobs at risk. Debenhams was put through a pre-pack administration that wiped out the investment of shareholders, including Mike Ashely, the founder of Sports Direct.

For the 26 weeks to March, sales in the Debenhams stores fell 7.4 per cent. Its new owners, who are a consortium of banks and hedge funds, launched the major store-closure programme via a CVA. The CVA will allow them to renegotiate rents at the remaining stores across the UK. It has been said that 39 stores will stick to their current rental rates for the duration of their leases while the company aims to secure rental reductions of between 25 and 50 per cent for the remaining stores.

The announcement from Debenhams is just the tip of the iceberg. Last year saw House of Fraser closing stores after being bought out of administration, while Marks and Spencer is currently in the process of shutting 100 stores by next year.

The number of vacant retail units in Scotland is higher than the UK average, with recent economic figures suggesting consumer spending has slowed over the past two years. Named brands such as Carpetright, Homebase and New Look opted for CVAs, while companies like Fabb Sofas, Maplin and Toys R Us ended up in administration.

However, according to recent research from Savills, the number of empty retail units that were let out in Scotland last year was 82; eight per cent up on the long-term average. These vacant units were snatched up by chains such as Aldi and Lidl, with Homestore & More securing stores at Craigleith Retail Park in Edinburgh and Mavor Avenue in East Kilbride.

Mike Spens, Director of the out-of-town retail team at Savills in Scotland, concluded:

“Corporate failures in the retail sector in the last 12-18 months have released space onto the out of town retail market and allowed for a greater churn. This has created an opportunity for brands such as Home Bargains and the discount food retailers to expand across Scotland and for new entrants to secure representation.”

Despite this, accountancy firm, French Duncan, believe the pressures on the retail sector could result in 2019 being a record year for retail insolvencies in Scotland.

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Three-quarters of Brits have given up on their financial resolutions for 2019 - but there is still hope.

Many people make money-related resolutions at the beginning of the year, but as it turns to spring, around three-quarters of Brits will already have abandoned their financial plans according to the latest survey from Voucher Codes Pro.

But what is it about making changes to our finances that we find so challenging, and is there any way to set yourself up for success? Let’s take a look.

Setting realistic goals

Many people are over-ambitious with their goals. This includes estimating how quickly they can get out of debt, or how much they can save each month. It is no surprise that many people are looking to tackle spiralling personal debt as quickly as possible and so set unsustainable targets for themselves.

The recent study carried out by Voucher Codes Pro revealed that more than one-third of Brits set January goals to get out of debt, and another third wanted to save money for a variety of reasons. While the route to achieving these goals may seem to be to cut out as many luxuries as possible to make massive annual savings, the reality is that most people will slip-up with spending.

The resolutions most likely to fail according to the research are saving a set amount each month, and using no credit at all, which indicates that a lack of flexibility in your goals can be harmful to your progress overall.

Freedom Finance has also produced research which shows that it takes three attempts to complete a new year’s resolution, so there is still time to get back on track.

George Charles, a spokesperson for Voucher Codes Pro, said:

“Having failed at a new year’s resolution doesn’t mean that you have to throw the towel in and wait until 2020 to try again.”

“There’s no time like the present. We’re all going to slip up along the way, but what matters is that you make a conscious effort to do better with your finances for the sake of your future.”

Keeping track is the first step

While many believe that paying a set amount back each month is the route to success, most people will derive more significant benefit from just accurately tracking their spending.

You should examine your finances and keep track of your spending in detailing - cutting out unnecessary expenditure where you identify patterns. Suitable examples include available subscriptions, insurance or TV bundles. You should also look into whether you are paying too much for energy, broadband and mobile contracts - even the smallest reductions in cost can add up over the year.

Set small, manageable goals

While at the beginning of the year you may have estimated how much you could hypothetically save, falling behind on these savings can affect your enthusiasm.

Nick Green from Unbiased.com said:

“A year is a long time, make it your resolution to set yourself small, regular goals over each week or month.

“Award yourself a small prize for achieving each one and tell your partner or a close friend about your goals, so they hold you to them.”

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We understand that facing up to financial challenges can be a tough and stressful time. However, you should be reassured to know that there are options available and, with the right advice and support, you can take the necessary steps to improve your situation. For specialist legal guidance on how you can get financially comfortable in Scotland, speak with one of our experts today.


Personal insolvencies in Scotland up by nearly 30% year-on-year

The number of Scots who are in serious financial difficulty has increased by 29.2 per cent in the last quarter of 2018-2019 (January-March) compared with the first three months of 2018, new figures show. This is despite unemployment being at a historic low and an increase in wages.

Accountant in Bankruptcy (AiB) reported personal insolvencies rose from 2,533 in the first three months of 2018 to 3,272 in the same quarter of 2019; the highest quarterly figure recorded since 2013. Some of the suggested reasons for the increase were high levels of household debt and the general economic uncertainty caused by Brexit.

There were 1,223 bankruptcies – also known as sequestration – awarded during this quarter, nine less than the previous quarter (1,232), but a 14.4 per cent rise on the same quarter of 2017-18 (1,069). Protected Trust Deeds (PTDs) was the main contributor to the overall rise in personal insolvencies, increasing nearly 40 per cent year-on-year from 1,464 to 2,049. PTDs have been on the rise since the January-March 2015.

In the first three months of 2019, there was a 22.1 per cent uplift in the number of people entering the Scottish government’s Debt Arrangement Scheme (DAS), which allows people to try to put their finances in order without going into insolvency. This figure has risen from 489 in 2017-18 to 597 in 2018-19. A total of £9.4 million was repaid through DAS during this quarter, an increase of 0.6 per cent on the £9.3 million recorded in 2017-18.

Additionally, there were 2,544 Debt Payment Programmes (DPPs) approved in 2018-19, 226 more than the previous year. A total of £37.1 million was repaid from debtors under DAS during 2018-19 compared with £37.6 million in 2017-18. In the first three months of 2019, 597 DPPs were approved under DAS, 108 more than the figure recorded in the same quarter of 2017-18 (489).

The figures mean personal insolvencies, bankruptcies and protected trust deeds (PTDs) have now risen for the third consecutive year but remain below levels seen previously between 2006-07 and 2013-14.

Corporate insolvencies in Scotland also rose by 34 per cent compared with the previous quarter (from 209 to 280), and eight per cent compared with the same quarter last year. The AiB reported 259 Scottish registered companies became insolvent or entered receivership in the first three months of 2017-18, compared with 280 in the same period of 2018-19.

Over the year, the number of corporate insolvencies increased by 9.3 per cent, from 884 in 2017-18 to 966 in 2018-19. The majority of corporate insolvencies are compulsory liquidations, an uplift of 34.2 per cent from 149 in January-March 2018 to 200 in the same period of this year. There were 137 member’s voluntary liquidations in the last quarter of 2018-19, 15 more than the previous quarter, and a 15 per cent increase (18 more) year-on-year.

Scottish government’s business secretary, Jamie Hepburn, concluded on the findings:

“In this climate it is more important than ever that people encountering financial difficulty seek early advice and the appropriate solution.

The Scottish government urges those in financial distress to obtain money advice at the earliest possibility in order to take control of their finances and ensure the right debt solution is found to suit their circumstances.”

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330,000 Scottish children live in households that are financially struggling

Official figures indicate that more than 300,000 children in Scotland are living in families who do not have access to emergency costs of up to £500.

The lack of financial flexibility among families has been flagged as a real concern as many Scots could be left in serious financial trouble if they are stuck with an unexpected household expense such as a broken boiler or having to replace a refrigerator.

Elaine Smith, MSP, referred to the current problem as putting Scottish families just “one big unexpected bill away from being in real financial trouble”.

Ms Smith explained:

“Replacing something like a fridge or boiler is expensive, but thousands of families with children would need to turn to debt to do it, because the cost of living, precarious work and stagnant wages aren’t letting people save for a rainy day.”

A recent YouGov survey of more than 2,000 Scots found that almost half (47 per cent) of Scottish workers run out of money before pay-day while 26 per cent have missed at least one council tax payment in the last year. Other issues were discovered during the survey, such as:

  • 30% would like to put away at least £20 per month for a ‘rainy day,’ but can’t afford to.
  • 28% can’t afford to keep their homes decorated in a decent condition.
  • 25% find it difficult or very difficult to cope with their current income.
  • 25% would like to save for a pension on a regular basis but can’t afford to.
  • 23% would like to have the recommended levels of dental treatment but can’t afford to.

The issue of poverty and financial insecurity in Scotland was also evident from debt help charity StepChange’s ‘Scotland in the Red’ report, claiming that nearly 700,000 Scots are either in, or at serious risk of falling into, problem debt.

The head of StepChange debt charity in Scotland, Sharon Bell, said she was "increasingly alarmed by the increases in the proportion of our clients who are struggling with household bills, particularly council tax".

With the average amount of council tax arrears amounting to £2,017, Ms Bell believes that “clients in Scotland are significantly more likely to have council tax arrears compared to elsewhere in the UK.”

The report found that nearly one in five were behind on their electricity bill; up four per cent on the previous year, while the amount they owed had increased by 10 per cent in just 12 months to an average of £826.

Stepchange found the most common reasons for debt were:

  • Reduced income (17 per cent)
  • Unemployment or redundancy (17 per cent)
  • Injury of illness (16 per cent)
  • Lack of budgeting (11 per cent)
  • Separation or divorce (10 per cent)

The most common age who reached out for debt advice was the 25-39-year-old age group (51 per cent). This was followed by those aged between 40 and 59 at 30 per cent, under 25s at 14 per cent, and over 60s at five per cent.

Couples with children accounted for 26 per cent of the people who contacted the charity in 2018. Despite single parents only representing six per cent of the entire UK population, the study found an increasing number of single parents are looking for debt help; rising from 18 per cent in 2014 to 23 per cent in 2018.

Douglas Hamilton, of the Poverty and Inequality Commission, believes the Scottish government needs to take meaningful action and must address the problem by “making full use of their powers to reduce housing costs, improve earnings and enhance social security.”

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Brits refuse to cut holidays in order to save money

Economic uncertainty caused by Brexit has encouraged Brits to seek better deals on insurance while reducing their spending on luxuries such as takeaways and shopping. However, recent research has found that the public refuse to sacrifice their trips abroad to improve their financial circumstances.

Since the 2016 Brexit referendum, consumer confidence has steadily fallen. Currently, 61 per cent of the public expects the UK economy to worsen over the next 12 months, and 41 per cent expect their personal financial situation to take a hit.

According to a recent YouGov poll, a third of Brits are concerned about the increasing costs of food and groceries and around one fifth (21 per cent) are worried that they do not have sufficient savings in case of an emergency.

To alleviate some of these Brexit-related worries, more than two-thirds (67 per cent) have said they plan to, or already have started, saving money. Of these respondents, three in five (61 per cent) say there is no particular reason for saving other than they want to be prepared for whatever comes.

Cutting expenses seems to be a high priority for several Brits. Around a third of those with a mortgage are reviewing their current rate (34 per cent) and more than a quarter (26 per cent) of insurance policyholders are looking to get cheaper deals on their critical illness cover, income protection and life insurance.

Additionally, the public has placed luxuries high up on their list of ways to cut costs. Takeaways are likely to take the biggest hit, with the most significant difference of minus 25 between those who say they will spend more and those who say they will spend less in the coming year. Coffee and snacks out are the next luxury most likely to go, with a gap of -18.

This was closely followed by having a gym membership (-14), and going to the cinema (-13). Consumers plan to spend less in the food and drinks industry as well, with ‘going out for drinks’ showing a gap of -12, and ‘eating out’ at -9.

However, the most expensive luxury on the poll - travelling abroad - looks to be the least affected. Despite many believing that holidays (66 per cent) and airfares (65 per cent) will be more costly following Brexit, only 24 per cent are actively planning to cut down on their travel spend in the next 12 months. In fact, two in five (40 per cent) have said they will definitely take a trip abroad in 2019.

Similar findings came from the leading association of travel, ABTA, when they discovered Brits would rather reduce their spending on eating out than cut back on their holidays (25 per cent vs 13 per cent). The most common items that people would consider cutting back on in order to save money was alcohol, cigarettes and takeaway meals.

Of the age groups surveyed, 18-24-year olds were the most committed to their holidays, with only six per cent saying they would reduce the number of trips they had to save money. This is despite the age group often being regarded as having the least disposable income.

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